High pressure gradients develop within the brain during rapid back and forth motion of the head during cervical acceleration/deceleration injury. At the time of injury, the brain is subjected to massive depolarization and tissues are damaged through transient shear forces that mechanically deform axons and microvessels. Various chemical changes throughout the brain begin to develop and areas of the brain that are vulnerable to injury lead to information processing difficulties, such as planning, anticipation and judgment. Injuries to these various parts of the brain also contribute to greater effects on a person’s social conditions, with some patients exhibiting impulsiveness, disinhibition and misinterpretation of others’ moods.
Most brain injuries are minor and the term mild traumatic brain injury is most useful. Within this subgroup of injuries, the spectrum ranges from concussion (without a loss of consciousness (LOC), but with some amnesia or confusion) to the classical concussion with brief LOC, amnesia, and mental changes that can be permanent. The post-concussion syndrome (PCS) can also develop from either. Post traumatic headaches are also very common residuals and may last anywhere from six months to several years and are an integral part of PCSiv,v.
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